An Alternative Therapy for Liver Disease Utilizing Mesenchymal Stem Cells
This paper reviews the use of exosomes, which are small vesicles made by MSCs, and the potential for cell-free therapy using MSCs as factories to produce exosomes.
Mesenchymal stem cell therapies for liver cirrhosis: MSCs as “conducting cells” for improvement of liver fibrosis and regeneration.
Inflamm Regen. 2019 Sep 9;39:18. doi: 10.1186/s41232-019-0107-z. eCollection 2019.
Tsuchiya A1, Takeuchi S1, Watanabe T1, Yoshida T1, Nojiri S1, Ogawa M1, Terai S1.
- Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8510 Japan.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be cultured relatively easily and can be obtained not only from the bone marrow, but also from medical waste such as adipose tissue and umbilical cord tissue. Because of its low antigenicity, allogeneic MSC injection is safe. MSCs have been evaluated in more than 900 clinical trials in a variety of fields, with more than 50 clinical trials related to liver diseases. Experiments have suggested that MSCs function as “conducting cells” to affect various “effective cells” such as T cells, B cells, and macrophages. Recent clinical trials have focused on allogeneic MSCs. Thus, studies are needed to determine the most effective cell source, culture conditions, cell numbers, administration frequency, administration route, cost, safety, and liver disease treatments. Recently, the functions of exosomes have gained attention, and cell-free therapy may become possible as an alternative therapy for liver disease. In this review, we introduce general information, mechanism, representative clinical study data, recently started or planned clinical trials, and possibility of cell-free therapy of MSCs.
PMID: 31516638 PMCID: PMC6732839 DOI: 10.1186/s41232-019-0107-z